The work consists of nine main parts, covering a diverse range of issues important for the development of safe working conditions in the production process. In the first chapter, different stages of the perception of the impact of working conditions on fatigue, health, and consequently the number of accidents related to their work are presented chronologically. The second chapter deals with the characteristics of individual industrial hazards (chemical, physical and biological) with emphasis on the effects of their impact on the human body. Characteristics that occur in certain conditions, factors regarded as a cause of discomfort, along with the effects of long-term exposure, are presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter presents the value and limits of norms – considered to be acceptable levels of exposure, given the level of probability of inevitable health consequences and the limits accepted as a discomfort value – in relation to various harmful factors and the nature of the work involved in the production process. Methods to reduce the impact of various factors occurring in industrial environments with human workers are presented in chapter five. However, the methods for determining actual values: values and concentrations of individual harm, against the boundary conditions – specific to each of the factors – are presented in chapter six. The necessary test equipment and the designation of the factors considered as a nuisance or harmful, are subsequently presented in chapter seven. Finally, the legal characteristics and principles related to industrial diseases are presented in chapter eight.